Computer Tomography scanning
In the main, the micro structure of a material determines its macroscopic properties. A typical example is porosity. Pores vary in size and shape, but also with respect to their connectivity. Because of the unique possibilities of CT-scanning, we are able to characterize the complete 3-D structure of a material on a micrometer level.
In specific cases, a 4-D visualization of the material may be instructive, the 4th dimension being a variable as time, temperature, relative humidity, pressure or extension.